Eski Türkler Yabancı Dil Biliyorlar Mıydı?
The ancient Turkic tribes and communities first expressed themselves in their own alphabets [Turkish alphabet / Göktürk alphabet / Köktürk alphabet] (developed by themselves using other alphabets as well) to maintain, document, and transfer their knowledge and experience to the next generations. While some of the inscriptions written on different objects (obelisks, rocks, daily belongings, ornaments, etc.) in the Turkish alphabet belong to rulers (khagans, khans, governors, commanders) and elites, others belong to the public. Besides the inscriptions written, erected / dictated by the ancient Turks in their own language with their own alphabet, they also had inscriptions erected or written on paper and different objects in other languages during the Turkish Khaganate (Köktürk Khaganate / Göktürk Khaganate) and Uyghur Khaganate Periods. Most of the inscriptions related to daily life and administration were written in Sogdian or Chinese, and the ones related to religious, moral, literary, philosophical, and similar subjects were generally written in Sogdian, Chinese, Sanskrit, Tibetan, Tocharian, Syriac, and (in later periods) Arabic and Persian. Social, cultural, religious, political, military, and commercial relations established by Turks with the powerful and sovereign nations / states of the time played a major role in their learning and use of foreign languages. The fact that some of the ancient Turks, especially the rulers and elites, had inscriptions erected, or written on paper or different objects in other languages during the Turkish Khaganate and Uyghur Khaganate Periods also testifies to their education levels, and relations with foreign languages and cultures. Written documents suggesting that at least some of the Ancient Turks spoke some foreign languages in the Turkish Khaganate and Uyghur Khaganate Periods are presented herein under the headings “Inscriptions written in foreign languages on Bengü stones and statues”, “Inscriptions written in foreign languages in places of worship and places to see”, and “Inscriptions written in foreign languages on daily belongings and ornaments”.
Ancient Turks, Ancient Turkish inscriptions, foreign language, ancient Turkish inscriptions in forei